Final Exam: Question 1–By Pat Timlin

Patrick Timlin

Dr. Jonathan Lillie

CM-203-01: Final Exam

Summer 2012

From the very beginning of the Revolutionary War, newspapers served a crucial role in distributing not only the written word, but also political thought amongst American colonists. The colonists grew to value their freedom of expression in political pamphlets and newspapers and in 1791 the newly democratic state that recognized that freedom by adding the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, thereby securing every American’s right to ‘Freedom of the Press.’ From that point forward the history of newspapers in America was unlike any other newspaper market in the world, due to the fact that “[…] newspapers and magazines developed in the United States with little government control, as opposed to other places in the world where censorship and government ownership are the norm” (King, Cook, & Tropin 317). From this era forward, the newspaper business has continuously evolved with the times.

In the early 1830’s, the Industrial Revolution and technological advancements such as the first cylinder press invented by a German by the name of Frederick Koenig, and steam engines (which were used to drive printing presses) which generated the ability of newspapers to increase their circulation. Newspapers companies began to experience significant growth because new technology and the low cost of paper products allowed them to mass circulate their papers for an extremely inexpensive price. This advancement also implemented social change, “[…] as mass circulation transformed newspapers into valuable businesses with large staffs, they started to be seen less as vehicles for one person’s opinions and more as providers of information” (King, Cook, & Tropin 319). This innovative period gave birth to objective journalism.  The invention of the telegraph and the Linotype machines also revolutionary. The telegraph allowed the fast and easy transfer of information to travel across great distances in small amounts of time, and the Linotype machine was able to fastidiously print entire pages of newspapers in no time at all. “The Linotype enabled newspapers to print several editions during the day” (King, Cook, and Tropin 320). The next major change in newspapers came about with the creation of newspaper chains.

            William Randolph Hearst began his change in San Francisco, then expanded to New York, and continued to acquire papers across the country until he controlled “[…] 30 papers nationwide, giving him enormous influence over public opinion” (King, Cook. & Tropin 320). Through their desire to increase capital by expanding their chains, Hearst and other newspaper publishers popularized the use of media conglomerates; a tradition that still exists today. For example, “Gannett, which is best known for publishing USA Today, has 84 daily newspapers and nearly 850 magazines and non-daily publications, and operates 23 television stations in the United States” (King, Cook, and Tropin 320). The creation of newspaper conglomerates also instigated social change. Immigrant communities, Native Americans, Women’s Rights groups, and anti-Vietnam War protesters are all examples of minority groups who established their own newspapers in order to unify their community and get their opinion out into the general public. However, although newspapers continued to provide Americans with news, they began to experience a decline in readership in the late 20th Century: a trend which has carried on to today. It eventually became more expensive for the production and distribution of newspapers, and they were eventually overcome by television and other forms of visual media. American began to lose interest in newspapers due to lack of stimulation and short-attention spans. The recession of 2008 and the popularization of the Internet also led to the decline in readership of newspapers. For example, newspapers used to generate significant profits from the advertisement of ‘classifieds’ in the back of the paper; however, the Internet site “Craigslist” facilitated a faster, concise, and more accessible version of classifieds that people could obtain for FREE and instantaneously. The two forms of convergence that newspapers and journalism were affected by were technological convergence and industry convergence (Class Notes). Additionally, the convergence of the Internet with news media has allowed viewers to obtain free information and visual media from social networks such as blogs, Twitter, and YouTube.

            Although newspapers have been significantly affected by convergence, they are still around today. They continue to suffer from a lack of readership, but they are now looking at ways in which they themselves can converge in order to increase their capital. One way in which they have done this is by experimenting with ‘converged newsrooms,’ hoping to do a better job at stimulating their audience. More importantly, they have begun to shift towards online journalism. Online journalism has been accessible via blogs and other free outlets (citizen-journalism online) for almost ten years now, but newspapers such as the NY Times and the Daily News have decided to move their articles onto theirs websites, requiring readers to pay a monthly subscription. These newspapers have taken notice of the power of citizen journalism and the effect it has on their business, so they modified their business models to the monthly subscriptions and began to encourage user participation/interaction. A look at the website for the Baltimore Sun is an example of the use of multimedia and user participation. They use videos like the one shown below in order to stimulate their audience, and they encourage users to discuss articles and news topics by ‘sharing’ their page with friends and family by using the Facebook ‘like’ button. Additionally, they have an entire tab labeled ‘Opinion’ where readers can discuss and interact with each other.



1) Currents in Communication: King, Cook, Tropin

2) Class Notes/PowerPoints



Final Exam: Question One

By: Katie Sheahin

Newspapers use to be the dominant form of mass media when looking back at the times of the American War of Independence.  During the time of the American War, newpapers started to appear in most of the colonies, that were usually no more than 4 pages long and just consisted of news items. With advances in technology in the 1800’s, that allowed for an increase in the availability of newspapers at a lower cost.  With the invention of the telegraph, that allowed for the newspapers to take a major step forward because it allowed for out-of-town news to be reported in the matter of days rather than weeks.  Another technology that greatly affected newspapers was the Linotype machine, which greatly helped newspapers in creating a page of the paper.  Around the 1940’s newspapers had hit there peak and a reduction of newspapers published and, “the percentage of the population that read them…”(318) had decreased.  In more recent times newspapers are starting to go out of business because of the technological advances todays world provides.  With the creation of the radio,TV’s, computers, smart-phones, etc. people rely less and less on the newspaper for their source of information.  These new forms of technology have given people of today’s world easier access to the news and in a more condense way.  Instead of having to go pick up the newspaper at the end of ones drive way, one is able to go on their computer and browse the internet for whatever they are interested in learning about.

All these new technologies have allowed for technology convergence to occur.  Like I stated above, the Internet allows for information to be given to one at the snap of a finger.  The internet also allows for “news to be decentralised.”  It allows for the public opinion to be heard by the ability to post blogs and videos.  The TV has also affected the convergence because many news shows are now portrayed on TV, which gives audio and video image which can be seen as new technological advances in comparison to the newspaper.  With all these new technology convergences, this then allows for industrial convergences, with certain companies coming together.  For instance, Netflix was a computer based application that is now available for access on TV’s.  This convergence of this application being able to first be seen on the computer but now is available on the TV, shows two different industries coming together.  With these new technologies, people are now able to search and watch things much, much faster than before the time of these technologies.

Newspapers business models have changed in that they have had to cut back on the amount of employees they have because they are unable to afford them.  Newspapers have realized that in order to stay afloat they need to be available on these different technologies such as the computer or smart-phones, to access the Internet.  They use websites like Facebook to present their information.  Newspapers have converged their newspapers to an online basis, so they can stay in business.  Some newspapers may even start to charge people for using their newspaper based website, in order for newspapers to stay in business.

The Baltimore Sun Website uses multimedia by presenting videos and pictures of different stories, so it will catch the users attention more.  They also make sure to present lots of pictures on the homepage of their website to keep people in-tuned, so they do not get bored.  I think they use these new medias in this way so people do not get bored with the information they our viewing the Baltimore Suns website.  Allowing people to view pictures and videos of the stories they are presenting keeps the viewers more interested.

Video about Convergence:


Elliot King, Russell Cook, and Mitchell Tropin, “Currents in Communication.” Dubuque, IA 2010. Print

Final Exam, By: Joseph Mahfood

Joseph Mahfood

Final Exam

Intro to Communications

Chapter 12

Media Industries, Newspapers Convergence


            “It is difficult, indeed dangerous, to underestimate the huge changes this digital revolution will bring or the power of developing technologies to build and destroy, not just companies but countries.” In fact in my opinion, this goes to more than just companies and countries but is rooted right through the government. These media powers for example Rupert Murdoch literally hold the politicians by their nuts. Through their powerhouse media companies and the media convergence they are able to get information to every single reader all over the world. At one point tangible newspapers were the only means of reading, which were usually only available in their country with only a set number of writers and journalists, but that has changed.

In 1791, the First Amendment paved the pass for free press. In 1934, the Federal Communications Commission was established in order to regulate some of the so-called free press. Ensuring that all media was established in the public’s best interest. Newspapers were the dominant force of media for most of US history. In the beginning newspapers focused on issues in British North American colonies with a lot of government censorship. This couldn’t last very long. In 1960, the first multi-paged newspaper was established; it was shut down the very next day because the government had not licensed it. The government couldn’t control everything for long. In 1721 the first independent establishment was built for and in the American colonies. Immediately after its development the very things I mentioned earlier in this paper begun. Criticism of government and opinions on different matters began to enter the minds of all readers. Again we saw another paper shut down only 6 years later. As America began their separation from England, people saw it as an opportunity to sell information relating to this topic that had to do with so many lives. There was now a strong market for the media. By the time the war ended in 1783, there were 43 different newspapers. And in the US, free speech was granted, and who knew what was to come. The new era really picked in 1987 with 62,826 different publications.

In the beginning the government had all the say whether newspapers were allowed or not or what they could say. It began to shift slowly to the opposite. The government needed the different newspapers to put them in good light. In 1825, after the invention of the cylinder press, mass production began. Their began a new motto of all newspapers and that was to reach out to everyone regardless of their class or background. Anything happening in the world was able to get to the eyes of the readers. It was an inexpensive way to learn about everything you wanted. As more and more people adapted to this new means of transportations it slowly became not a method of learning opinions, rather a method of learning facts. Over time the credibility of these newspapers slowly grew to the point that readers believed everything. In 1904 there was a school developed for journalists to learn the art of supplying information. This all may seem big for that time, but in our era, a giant such as USA today has 84 daily newspapers, 23 television stations and 850 magazines. One can only imagine how many eyes view their information daily. This new era is becoming more digital as we all know, and the ongoing transfer of newspapers to the web is allowing the newspapers to share even more information. The physical print are trying to be kept short and to the point and if there is a topic that one wants to know more about but may not be interesting to everyone they can always check out the web. Then there are web based magazines, once there was a time when we saw what the journalists had to say and that was it, now on these sites bloggers can share anything they want and some people will believe anything they read. With all of these developments there is a huge shift in the business models for Newspapers with using the web and all.

Quoted from the required reading, “Media affects how we look at the world around us.” Sure it is building jobs and in a sense culture as stated in the required reading but it is also putting too much control and power in the wrong hands. Rupert Murdoch has the politicians in his pocket, with all of the media he owns in every form, millions get their eyes to his material. If he says one bad thing about a politician and people see it everywhere they look, what do you think they are going to believe? “People have more access to digital media, as of 2011, USA produced 206.2 million Internet users.” That is a lot of eyes and Newspapers had no other option, they went digital to really real in that market. I can sit where I am right now and pull up the Jamaican Gleaner.

The Baltimore Sun is a clear example of a newspaper who changed their business model and went digital. If you take a look at their website you can access almost anything on any topic in the area of Baltimore and around the world. And the most interesting part to look at is the blog area where one can state their own opinion and have discussions with others on different topics allowing people to instill different concepts in their minds even more. The advertising has also allowed for a boost in revenue, all around the page is loaded with advertisements from different companies. Also there are a lot of bright pictures and videos for every topic, more than what a print may have and this may make people become even more aware of these topics.

Because of the lack of time, i didnt really get a chance to talk about this article, but it is worth looking at.

“The Baltimore Sun | Breaking News, Sports, Weather and Traffic in Baltimore –” The Baltimore Sun | Breaking News, Sports, Weather and Traffic in Baltimore – N.p., n.d. Web. 11 July 2012. <;.

Sullivan, Amanda. “Media  Convergence  of  Newspapers:  .” N.p., n.d. Web.

Final Exam: Question #2 (Jordan Bateson)

Jordan Bateson


Final Exam: Question #2

The required reading for chapter 10 talks heavily about how television could become a more participatory and democratic medium. The main arguments in this reading are that in media, consumption and participation are very important! When it comes to media, distribution, production and selection of what to produce and which programs to run are on the very top of the importance list. People must find things interesting in order to want to watch them. Along with the previously mentioned aspects, technology and culture are also important. These two criteria are two of the most important core aspects of public participation in media.

Convergence culture is also another big topic. Convergence culture is “enabling new forms of participation and collaboration” (279). Convergence itself “represents a paradigm shift. It is a move from medium-specific content toward content that flows across multiple media channels” (279). This convergence culture is used by the media to shape consumer behavior. Media companies strive to shape and alter consumer behavior so that is betters the amount of consumption of their brand. Companies want consumers to watch them and use their products, therefore they put out media centered and geared to certain demographics and individual interests.

Viewers enjoy the aspect of having a say in the types of media they watch and interact with. One of the biggest changes in media in the recent years has been individual change and the personalization of media consumption. Apple is a great example of personalized usage for each and every consumer. Those customers with iPhones, iPods, Mac computers, laptops, etc… witness first hand how moldable Apple is in an effort to heighten the satisfaction and better individualize their products. Apple has an application for what seems like pretty much everything. There are “apps” for running such as “Nike+ Running” and “Nike Training Club” that are geared towards those consumers interested in fitness. Both of these “apps” have a built in memory. Nike+ Running has a built in GPS that maps each consumers running route as well as records time and mile splits. The application allows each runner to create their own personalized playlist and list of pump-up songs that are available to listen to while he or she is on the run. Additionally, the application remembers personal records and aids each runner in achieving better fitness and run times each time he or she laces up his or her running shoes to go out for a run. Along with many other features, “Nike+ Running” also enables users to upload and “share” their workout with their friends on Facebook, Twitter, and other social media outlets, making it possible for friends and family that aren’t always close by to know what you’re up to and how you’re doing. This “share” can be done at the beginning of a workout as well. Doing this posts a message on the runners Facebook or Twitter that enables friends to “like” or “retweet” the workout. When a friend “likes” the workout post, the sound of applause is sent wirelessly to the runner that is heard through their headphones while in the middle of a workout.

Apple continues to use much of the same technology in all the applications and programs they produce. Another example is in iTunes. With every song, application, book, etc… someone downloads, iTunes then generates a list of recommended choices for the consumer based on what is already in their current library. Through allowing consumers to download programs and information, Apple and other companies are “aiding in distribution content” (286).

Media has changed in many ways since the 1960’s and 1980’s. Back when our parents were younger, the main form of media came via radio, black and white television, printed news: newspapers, magazines, books, pamphlets, etc… The computer wasn’t a huge form of media back in the 60’s and 80’s. Computers started out very large in size and they were very expensive, making it impossible for anyone other than large companies to possess them. This lack of digital media in the 1960’s-1980’s makes in much more difficult for adults today, who were young during that time, to become accustomed to and learn about present day media.


Elliot King, Russell Cook, and Mitchell Tropin, “Currents in Communication.” Dubuque, IA 2010. Print

Final Exam

By: Kara Marshall

Chapter 10

Chapter ten discusses evolution in terms of the media. It explains how media systems must be created and then developed. Technology is constantly making improvements and thinking of new ways to develop a product. All media systems are linked together and must work with each other to deliver a type of message. Therefor, media as a whole is constantly evolving with new technologies. The chapter also discusses key evolutionary factors which are innovation, technological development, market development, and regulation. Along with the evolution of media, the impact of media on society increases with the new improvements that are applied to technology. For example, people greatly depend on the television for news reports and information for what is going on in society. People did not always use to depend on the television to that extent.

Before when there was no such thing as “Television” people depended on the news papers for information and facts of what was happening throughout the world. The news paper then developed into images and moving picture, in other words- television. Television has substantially evolved and improved to adapt to todays society. The television went from black and white picture with no sound to black and white picture with sound, and then to a colored flat screen in high definition picture. In some cases people have canceled the new paper coming to their homes because television and internet are more commonly used with more useful information for whatever you wish to know. Chapter ten better explains this type of evolution through the linear model of innovation. The linear model starts with the invention of a product. The invention of a product must lead to the innovation of the product. Then the innovation of the product leads to the diffusion of the product which is how it is distributed to the public or how people buy it. Innovation made diffusion amongst different companies.

Social media sites such as Youtube, Facebook, and Twitter have a great effect on todays society, mainly in the life of teens and adults. A recent study showed that people spent 53.5 billion minutes on Facebook during the month of May in 2011. People become obsessed with their Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube accounts, constantly worrying about how their page looks and their “internet identity.” I believe that with the inventions of these websites came great changes within the generation of teens today from when our grandparents were teens. The interaction and social skills that of our grandparent are greatly different from the ones of teens today. I believe social media has a major responsibility for that.