Road to States


Final Exam

By: Kara Marshall

Chapter 10

Chapter ten discusses evolution in terms of the media. It explains how media systems must be created and then developed. Technology is constantly making improvements and thinking of new ways to develop a product. All media systems are linked together and must work with each other to deliver a type of message. Therefor, media as a whole is constantly evolving with new technologies. The chapter also discusses key evolutionary factors which are innovation, technological development, market development, and regulation. Along with the evolution of media, the impact of media on society increases with the new improvements that are applied to technology. For example, people greatly depend on the television for news reports and information for what is going on in society. People did not always use to depend on the television to that extent.

Before when there was no such thing as “Television” people depended on the news papers for information and facts of what was happening throughout the world. The news paper then developed into images and moving picture, in other words- television. Television has substantially evolved and improved to adapt to todays society. The television went from black and white picture with no sound to black and white picture with sound, and then to a colored flat screen in high definition picture. In some cases people have canceled the new paper coming to their homes because television and internet are more commonly used with more useful information for whatever you wish to know. Chapter ten better explains this type of evolution through the linear model of innovation. The linear model starts with the invention of a product. The invention of a product must lead to the innovation of the product. Then the innovation of the product leads to the diffusion of the product which is how it is distributed to the public or how people buy it. Innovation made diffusion amongst different companies.

Social media sites such as Youtube, Facebook, and Twitter have a great effect on todays society, mainly in the life of teens and adults. A recent study showed that people spent 53.5 billion minutes on Facebook during the month of May in 2011. People become obsessed with their Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube accounts, constantly worrying about how their page looks and their “internet identity.” I believe that with the inventions of these websites came great changes within the generation of teens today from when our grandparents were teens. The interaction and social skills that of our grandparent are greatly different from the ones of teens today. I believe social media has a major responsibility for that.


Chapter Nine

Chapter 9, Communication as Storytelling, shows the impact that narrative and storytelling has on everyday life. Storytelling expresses the innate human need for companionship and preserves social values for the younger generation. The chapter briefly discusses how writing down the oral stories takes away the “sounds and rhythms of the storytellers,” while increasing objectivity, fact, and truth. The importance of journalism’s role in society to tell stories and maintain essential myths, such as the Victim, the Scapegoat, the Hero, and others, is also discussed. It notes that myths are common to all cultures and world religions. Although one of storytelling’s main jobs is to tell the truth by verification of facts and determining a speaker’s credibility, it is often blurred. “Gatekeeping by journalists is common and places events into “soft” and “hard” news. Documentaries, on the other hand, allow for more in-depth reporting. Citizen journalism, such as blogging, has increased in popularity, but is really personal opinion columns. People need to determine a blogger’s credibility to discern truth. False storytelling or hoaxes in the mass media unfortunately have occurred. Truth becomes obscured by a storyteller’s desire for greed and celebrity. Next, the chapter discusses storytelling techniques, such as oral stories, screenwriting, different genres (sitcom), and transmedia stories, which blend different storytelling techniques. Media storytelling can accelerate a story’s growth.

The essay by Michelle Wallace examines the need to study the techniques of feature film and how they impact dominant racial ideologies. The Birth of a Nation was based on two racist novels written by a white supremacists, Thomas Dixon, and D. W. Griffith, who was obsessed with white genealogical purity. With these two major agendas as a backdrop for the film, several concepts were perpetuated. Incorporating melodrama and film techniques black people were seen as invisible, the myth of the black brute was perpetuated, the Confederate myth was reinforced, “whiteness” was portrayed as right and beautiful, lynching was depicted as pristine and choreographed, and the Klan was romanticized. This film, as well as others, such as Uncle Tom’s Cabin, incorporated techniques that contributed to racial fears and tensions, effectively impacting social policies.

There are several connections between the textbook and the essay. First of all, the basis of Chapter 9 is the importance of storytelling to social life. The Birth of a Nation and other feature films reveal how influential their message is on human behavior, culture and social values. Myths about black people were perpetuated by these films and resulted in hatred, mistrust and tensions.Secondly, although storytellers main job is to tell the truth, we see how this fails when a story like Birth of a Nation subtly and overtly portrays an inaccurate picture.Thirdly, the credibility of the storyteller is essential to discerning fact from fiction.Peoples prejudice was evident on the making of Birth of a Nation.The techniques used only reinforced present racial ideologies. As chapter 9 stated on page 243 “Media storytellers have available of wide variety of techniques to capture their audience.” It is obvious that feature films even made in 1915 knew this fact and used it irresponsibility to promote an agenda.

The two stories I would like to apply these concepts is the Pat Tillman story and the story of the neighborhood watch volunteer who killed Trayvon Martin. The social Media storytelling of the each of these events. They have used many techniques to capture their audience and influence public opinion.

Pat Tillman story of the professional football player turned American war hero has been depicted in documentaries, biographies, and published love letters to his wife. One often sees the strong man pictured whether in a football uniform or a soldier s uniform with the American flag as the back drop. Feelings of pride and patriotism increase. In the midst of building a story though the media reported a lie that Tillman was killed by enemy fire. This reinforced hatred toward the Taliban.

The media reporting of the Trayvon Martin / George Zimmerman story has ignited emotions on both sides. The media has stated things out  of context and aired clips of video of audio that do not tell the whole story. Pictures have been published to reinforce a point of view – Trayvon Martin a 13 year old and George Zimmerman as a crazed vigilant. Hopefully the truth will come out in its entirety during the trial; and the media will report it accurately. Public opinion has definitely been impacted by media coverage.


Evelyn Lozada

By: Kara Marshall

I chose to follow Evelyn Lozada on twitter. Evelyn Lozada is famous because of the show Basketball Wives on VH1. Basketball Wives is a show produced by Shaunie O’neil, Shaquille O’niel’s wife, and the show is about the life and drama between several women who all are in a relationship or were previously in a relationship with a professional NBA player. 

Evelyn has become very popular from the show. She is known as the very outspoken, loyal, and beautiful “Basketball Wife” to all the fans and viewers that watch the show. I would say the show helped her career take off. The fans fell in love with her personality and all her many catch phrases and sayings. Her catch phrases and saying became so popular at one point during the season that she made a shirt line with all the things Evelyn Lozada says. The shirts were a major success. That was the start for Evelyn’s media outbreak. 

After the show began, Evelyn created a twitter account to keep in touch with her fans as well as publicize her life and market products. For example, a restaurant/bar called Cafe Iguana tagged Evelyn Lozada in a tweet, “The beautiful @EvelynLozada will be at #KaraokeNightOut tonight! We’re anxious to see what she’ll be wearing. She’s always on point!” Evelyn retweeted the tweet to all of her followers. This helped the restaurant to gain more costumers hoping that more people would coming knowing that Evelyn Lozada would be present. The tweet also advertised what Evelyn would be wearing. Name brand companies ask Evelyn to wear their clothes because the name brands know many girls will try to imitate Evelyn’s look and want to buy the same clothes.

Evelyn has recently written a book. The book was open to stores last week and the copies have already sold out in several stores. Her tweets lately, have mainly been about her book. She tweeted when and where she will be doing book signings as well as autographs and pictures. I believe, in Evelyn’s case, that the media has really helped her career advance in a positive way. She has become so successful with Basketball Wives and her book that her fans have persuaded her to have her own reality show called Chad and Evelyn. Her tweets have also been broadcasting her new show, letting her fans now when the world premier is and such. You can follow Evelyn Lozada for yourself on twitter at @EvelynLozada.


Question C


Kara Marshall

CM 203-01

Professor Lillie

June 25, 2012

Question C

“Medium Theory”

In “Media Theory”, by Joshua Meyrowitz, there are three phases of social roles; oral conceptions of group identity, socialization, and hierarchy. Group identity addresses whether you are male or female. You must be one or the other, there is no in between. Socialization is the relationship between a child and adult. One must go through childhood to get to adulthood. Hierarchy deals with political leaders and average citizens. Each person is in some political relationship with a stage of political power. These three phases of social roles are known as the triad. After the invention of print and other literate forms, the phases of social roles began to evolve.

Prior to print, writing, and other social media options, the phases of social roles were simple. There was no segregation by age or grade in schools; all children learned the same material. Most children would skip schooling as a child and emerge right into adulthood. Children would be forced to go to work like an adult or even go to war like an adult because of the lack of literacy one faced. Schooling, back then, was very basic until the different types of media were noticed. Now the triad, group identity, socialization, and hierarchy must adapt to the new sense of media and technology.

Today, schools are split up by age and grade. When writing and print were invented, schools were able to test the children on their literacy skills. This enabled schools to categorize the students by their literacy level and group them into their appropriate grades. Everyone learns in different ways, and by having all ages grouped together for the same subject is inefficient because some students will learn faster than others. Writing and print enabled schools to advance in academics and make academics more of a priority.

The rise of media technology is a whole different story. In most cases I feel that cell phones have hindered this generation from direct communication and interaction. Cell phones are useful when needing to contact someone for emergency purposes. For example, cell phones come in handy when one is lost or in need of help, or simply by communicating where you are to someone who is expecting you just to clarify safety. Today, children as young as eleven have cell phones and use them to an excessive extent. The article “The Mobile Life Youth Report” states, “73% of young people say it is unreasonable to send a text message during a school lesson.However, 50% say they have, in fact, used their mobile phone to send or receive a text during a school lesson: among girls aged15-17 the proportion is 67%; among boys aged 11-14, it is 33%” This means that children know that using their mobile devices during school classes is a distraction and should not be allowed, but they do it anyway.

Cell phones have made it so easy to communicate indirectly that most children prefer calling or texting what they need to say to someone rather than talking face to face. Direct confrontation makes some kids nervous because they have grown up in a society that relies so heavily on mobile devices. Families tend to communicate and interact with each other less because cell phones. When I go out to restaurants I constantly see families out to dinner but none of them talking to each other, they all just sit there and play on their cell phones.

Social media has increased in technology a great amount. I feel like the people of this generation will constantly be evolving to whatever new advancement in technology is invented.